Irwanda

Zimwe muri ‘Coups d’Etat’ zikomeye zabaye muri Afurika zitazibagirana.







Muri Afurika, ni hamwe mu hantu hakunze kuvugwa ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi ku bwinshi, ibi mu ndimi z’amahanga bita “Coup d’état”. Mubihugu bimwe  iri hirikwa ry’ubutegetsi ryabaga riciye mu ngufu za gisirikare, ahandi ugasanga ahanini byabaga biturutse ku myivumbagatanyo y’abasivili, bahagurukaga ,bakamagana ubutegetsi bakanabukuraho.


Icyinyamakuru cyanyu  Irwanda.rw cyabateguriye, murasangamo ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi kuri ubu buryo bubiri bwombi, bwaba ubukoresheje intwaro cyangwa ubwifashisha imyigaragambyo.

Urugero rwa hafi ku mpande zombi ,ni nk’aho mu gihugu cya Burkina Faso, nyuma y’imyaka 27 ayobora iki gihugu , Perezida Blaise Compaoré yahiritswe ku butegetsi n’abaturage bari bariye karungu, mu myivumbagatanyo yari ikaze ,kugeza ubwo uyu mu Perezida wari ufite ipeti rya kapiteni mu gisirikare, yahise afata iy’ubuhungiro.


Hari ku wa 31 Ukwakira 2014, ubwo inkuru yakwiraga ku isi yose ko Blaise Compaoré yafashe icyemezo cyo kwegura, mu Nteko ishinga amategeko ya Burkina Faso, nyuma gato Perezidansi ya Cote d’Ivoire isohora itangazo ryagiraga riti “Perezida Blaise Compaoré n’umuryango we, hamwe n’inshuti zabo, bakiriwe neza muri Cote d’Ivoire”, nko kwemeza bidasubirwaho ,ko uyu mugabo uretse no guteshwa ubutegetsi, yari yamaze no guhunga igihugu cye, hari ku wa 31 Ugushyingo 2014.


Umwaka wa 1999 wirengeje abaperezida babiri, Ibrahim Baré Maïnasssara wa Niger warashwe n’abari bashinzwe kumurinda, ku myaka 50 yari afite , Perezida Ibrahim yari ku ipeti rya Colonel , akaba kandi yari umwe mu basirikare ba Niger wari utinyitse cyane, kabone n’ubwo ibi bitabujije ko ahirikwa ndetse n’amaraso ye akameneka.


Mainassara yari ku butegetsi kuva ku wa 27 Mutarama 1996 ,kugeza yishwe, yari yaravukiye Dangondutchi muri Niger akaba kandi ubwo yahirikaga ubutegetsi, yari umugaba w’ingabo za Niger, yanaturukaga muri bumwe mu bwoko bukomeye bwa Haussa, usanga muri Niger na Nigeria.

Col. Ibrahim B. Mainassara yarasiwe ku kibuga cy’indege cya Niamey,mu gihe yageragezaga kurira kajugujugu ngo ahunge igihugu.


Nyuma yasimbuwe ku butegetsi na Komanda Daouda Mallam Wanké, wahise akoresha kamarampaka ku itegeko Nshinga ryo guhererekanya ubutegetsi, iri tegeko ryanateganyaga imbabazi rusange ku bagize uruhare mu ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi bose.


Bamwe mu baperezida bagiye bafata ubutegetsi inshuro zirenze 2


Ibi ariko si igitangaza cyane kuko na hafi aha mu karere k’Afurika y’Ibiyaga bigari, hari aho byagiye biba, urugero ni nko mu gihugu cy’abaturanyi cy’u Burundi, aho Major Buyoya Petero yafashe ubutegetsi inshuro 2, bwa mbere guhera kuwa 09 Nzeri 1987 kugeza kuwa 10 Nyakanga 1993. Kuri iyi nshuro ya mbere , yari ahiritse Colonel Jean Baptiste Bagaza, wari mubyara we.


Major Petero Buyoya kandi yagarutse ku nshuro ya kabiri,  kuwa 25 Nyakanga 1996, aho yayoboye imyaka isaga 7 kugeza ku wa 30 Mata 2003. Niba hari abagabo bariye ku butegetsi muri Afurika, Major Buyoya ari mu ba mbere.


Ubusanzwe Petero Buyoya yari yarize amashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye mu Burundi, ariko amashuri ya gisirikare ayaminuriza mu Bubiligi, mu ishuri ry’umwami rya gisirikare ‘Ecole Royale Militaire’, guhera mu 1970 kugeza mu 1974.


Uretse kuba yari umuhanga mu bya gisirikare kandi ,Major Buyoya ngo yari yaragiye afata imyanya idasanzwe mu gisirikare cy’u Burundi ,aho kuva mu 1975 ,yahereye ku buyobozi bwa Platoon [ abasirikare 50 ],nyuma gato guhera mu 1977-1980 , akayobora ikigo cya  Gitega,kuva ubwo akaba umusirikare ushinzwe ibikorwa bya gisirikare muri Etat Major y’Ingabo z’u Burundi ,kugeza aho ahirikiye ubutegetsi bwa Bagaza mu 1987.


Undi mu Perezida wayoboye igihugu kabiri muri Afurika ni uwitwaga Joao Bernardo Nino Vieira . Ku nshuro ya mbere, yabaye umukuru w’igihugu bwa mbere hagati ya 1980 na 1984 , guhera muri uwo mwaka kandi yongeye kwicara ku ntebe y’ubutegetsi mpaka 1999, nyuma y’aho muri Guinea Bissau hari hadutse inyeshyamba zari ziyobowe na Komanda Ansoumane Mallam Mané, zikamukura ku butegetsi.

Nyuma y’aho gato, mu 2005, uyu mu perezida yongeye gufata ubutegetsi binyuze mu matora.

Vieira wari umaze kuba ubukombe ku ntebe y’ubutegetsi ariko, ntiyaje guhirwa kuko ku wa 02 Werurwe 2009, yishwe arashwe nyuma yo gukubitwa bikomeye inkoni zitabarika.




Umunyamakuru Mike Pflanz w’Ikinyamakuru “The Independent” ku wa 03 Werurwe 2009, ubwo yaganiraga n’umuganga wakoze isuzuma ry’umurambo wa  Vieira Bernardo yamutangarije ko yishwe n’amasasu.

Ati “Perezida yashegeshwe n’amasasu menshi yarashwe mu gituza, no mu isura, kandi umubiri we wagaragazaga ibimenyetso byo gukubitwa, mu bigaragara yabanje gukubitwa cyane, mbere yo kumunogonora n’amasasu menshi”.


Zimwe mu mpamvu zavugwaga ko uyu mu Perezida yishwe n’abasirikare, harimo urupfu rw’uwari umugaba w’ingabo ze, wari umaze iminsi aturikanywe n’igisasu yari yatezwe, bigakekwa ko wari umutego Vieira yari yamushanditse, uyu General Baptista Tagme na we akaba yari akunzwe cyane mu ngabo za Guinea , byatumye zirahirira kumuhorera.

Tumwe mu dutendo Joao Bernardo Vieira azwiho muri Guinea Bissau ,ni uko yari yarihimbye ngo ni Impano y’Imana yagewe igihugu cya Guinea Bissau”.


Hari abahirikaga ubutegetsi na bo bagahirikwa batanariyeho kabiri

Nk’uko Bwiza.com yabibagaragarije hejuru kandi, ahavugwa uburyo hari abaperezida bavaga ku butegetsi ,nyuma bakazabugarukaho ,hari n’ubwo abo bakuragaho nabo babaga barabugiyeho bahiritse abandi.

Nka Major Petero Buyoya,yari yakuyeho Colonel Jean Baptiste Bagaza ,nyamara uwo Bagaza na we yari yakoreye Coup d’Etat Colonel Micombero.


Gato cyane ariko iyi nkuru ikomereje mu ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi ryabaye i Abidjan muri Cote d’Ivoire kuwa 24 Ukuboza 1999. Kuri uru munsi,General Robert Gueï yahiritse ku butegetsi Henri Konan Bédié .


Jeune Afrique ivuga ko General Robert Guei yari umusirikare ukomeye muri Cote d’Ivoire , kuko yanabashije kuba umugaba w’ingabo ku ngoma z’abaperezida 2, aribo Perezida Félix Houphouët-Boigny ndetse na Konan Bédié yahiritse.

Robert Gueï mu 2002 ariko ntiyahiriwe n’ubutegetsi ,kuko yishwe mu buryo kugeza n’ubu butavugwaho rumwe ,ari nabwo Cote d’Ivoire yahitaga icikamo ibice bibiri , aho mu majyarugu hafashwe n’inyeshyamba za New Forces zari ziyobowe na Guillaume Soro ,hamwe na Alassane Ouattara uri ku butegetsi muri iki gihugu.

Kugeza magingo aya, igisirikare cya Cote d’Ivoire kigaragara nka kimwe mu bisirikare bya Afurika bidashinga, kuko rimwe wumva ngo abasirikare bigaragambije kubera kudahembwa, ubundi ukumva ngo ,bamwe barashe mu kirere, ku buryo na nubu nta gushyira hamwe kw’iki gisirikare kurangwa muri iki gihugu.

Hari igihe usanga harabaga ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi mu myaka yegeranye!

Iri hirikwa ry’ubutegetsi, hari ubwo wagirango ni amarushanwa yabaga yarateguwe, kuko nta gace na kamwe ka Afurika katagezwemwo n’iyi nkubiri, yo kwigarurira ubutegetsi ku ngufu za gisirikare.

Nko mu 2003, uyu mwaka wonyine wasize wirengeje ba Perezida 3 , Ange Félix Patassé wari ku butegetsi guhera mu 1993 ,wahiriswe kuwa 15 Werurwe 2003 , akaba yarakuwe ku ntebe na General François Bozizé wari umaze imyaka ikabakaba 2 yaramugiriye mu ishyamba, aha ni muri Santrafrika turi.

Ku wa 16 Nyakanga muri uwo mwaka kandi , muri Sao Tomé et Principe nabwo havuzwe Coup d’Etat ,yahengereye uwari Perezida Fradique de Meneze ari hanze mu ruzinduko rw’akazi ,maze  Fernando Pereira agerageza kumukuruho.

Gusa nyuma y’icyumweru kimwe gusa, Fernando de Meneze yari yamaze kongera kwigarurira ubutegetsi ,bijya gusa na kwa kundi byagenze mu gihe cya Coup d’Etat yaburijwemo mu Burundi mu mwaka wa 2015 ,ubwo Perezida Petero Nkurunziza yahirikwaga ku butegetsi ,ariko ingabo z’igihugu cy’u Burundi zikayiburizamo.


Charles Taylor

Muri uwo maka kandi ,nibwo muri Liberia , uwitwa Charles Taylor yakurwaga ku butegetsi bwa Liberia , agafata iy’ubuhungiro ku wa 11 Kanama 2003 ,nyuma yo koswa igitutu n’umuryango mpuzamahanga .

Muri icyo gihe kandi , mu gihe kitarenze umwaka ari ku butegetsi,  Bwana Kumba Yala wa Guinea Bissau nawe yarahiritswe ,hari kuwa 14 Nzeri 2003 , ahirikwa n’itsinda ry’abasirikare bari bayobowe n’uwitwa Verissimo Correira Seabra.

Muri Mauritania ho habaye agashya ka Coup d’Etat 2 mu gihe cy’imyaka 3 !


 Uwavuga ibya Coup d’Etat muri Afurika bwakwira bugacya. Muri iki gihugu cya Mauritania giherereye muri Afurika y’Iburengerazuba, hari ubwo wagirango bari mu marushanwa.

Nko ku wa 03 Kanama 2005, agatsiko k’abasirikare kayobowe na Colonel Maaouyia Ould Taya kahiritse ubutegetsi, nyuma gato haba amatora.

Bidatinze uwitwa Sidi Ould Cheikh agiye ku butegetsi nyuma yo gutsinda amatora yari yateguwe naba basirikare bahiritse ubutegetsi, ku wa 06 Kanama 2008 na we yahiritswe na Mohamed Ouild Abdel Aziz.

 Muri uwo mwaka wa 2005 mu Ukuboza ku itariki 23 , uwitwa Moussa Dadis Camara yigaruriye muri Guinea Conakry ,hari nyuma gato y’itangazwa ry’urupfu rw’uwari Perezida Lansana Conté .


Muri Madascar kandi ubwo mu 2009 ,nibwo Marc Ravalomanana yahatiwe n’abasikare kuva ku butegetsi ,hari kuwa 17 Werurwe 2009 , ubwo uyu mu Perezida yahanahanaga ubutegetsi Andry Rajoelina.

Muri Niger kuwa 18 Gashyantare 2010 , igisirikare cyateguye ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi maze ingabo zishyiraho Mamadou Tandja .


Mu mwaka wa 2011 abaturage bakoze iyo bwabaga bahindura ubutegetsi mu Misiri , Libya, Tunisia n’ahandi

Mu kiswe “Le Printemps Arabe” cyangwa umuhindo wo mu bihugu by’abarabu, habaye impinduka zihambaye ,aho abaturage bahagurutse ,bahagaharara ,bagakuraho ubutegetsi bwabo.

Ni mu gihe umusore w’umuzanguzayi mu gace k’abakene gatuwe cyane ka Sidi-Bouazid muri Tunis, abitewe no kurengerwa n’ikibazo cy’ubukene no kubura akazi, yihaye umuriro, arikongeza izuba riva.

Guhera ubwo, urubyiruko rwa Tunisia  no mu bindi bihugu bitandukanye by’Abarabu, rwahise rutangiza ibikorwa byo kwirukana abategetsi bari ku ngoma imyaka myinshi, kandi badakemura ibibazo byabo.

Bamwe babikoze mu nzira y’amahoro ariko igwiriyemo imyigaragambyo, yabaga irimo guhangana n’inzego z’umutekano nyamara muri izo mbaraga zose zakoreshwaga mu guhagarika uru rubyiruko rwari rwariye karungu ,nta na kimwe kigeze kibuza ko abigaragambyaga bashizwe bageze ku cyo babaga bagamije.

Nko kuwa 14 Mutarama 2011 , uwari Perezida Zine El Abdine Ben Ali ,yarameneshejwe, mu gihe ku wa 11 Gashyantare muri uwo mwaka ,nyuma y’iminsi 18 gusa , Perezida wa Misiri Hosni Boubarak yahise yirukanwa n’abaturage bari mu myivumbagatanyo muri Cairo ,ndetse n’indi mijyi ikomeye mu Misiri.

Aho igihugu kimwe gitegekwa n’abaperezida 2 icyarimwe:

Muri Cote d’Ivoire , hari ubwo habayeho abakuru b’ibihugu babiri. Ku ruhande rumwe Bwana Laurent Gbagbo yari amaze gutsindwa amatora na Alassane Ouattara ariko Gbagbo we yanga ibyari byayavuyemo.

Byarangiye Laurent Gbagbo, ameneshejwe n’abasirikare bari mu mutwe witwa The New Forces ( nkuko byavuzwe haruguru iyi nkuru itangira ) .

Iyi nkundura kandi niyo yasize ihiritse Colonel Mouamar El-Ghadafi ,wahuriweho n’intambara zari zihuje ibihugu by’i Burayi n’Amerika .

Ariko kandi n’inyeshyamba zo mu mutwe wa The Free Syrian Army , zakoze iyo bwabaga ,mu rugamba rutari rworoshye, rwashojwe uyu mu Perezida wari utegetse imyaka isaga 40 yishwe ku wa 20 Ukwakira 2011.

Ikindi umuntu yavuga , ni uko hagati y’umwaka wa 2012 na 2014 , bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika byagize isimburanabutegetsi ridasanzwe ,muri buryo  bw’ihirikabutegetsi.

Mali : Capitaine Amadou Sanogo yahiritse Amadou Toumani Touré, hari ku wa 22 Werurwe 2012.

Guinea Bissau : General Antonio Indjaï yahiritse uwari Minisitiri w’Intebe , Carlos Gomez Junior ,hari kuwa 24 Mata 2012.

Centrafrique : Inyeshyamba za Séléka ,zahiritse General François Bozizé ku wa 24 Werurwe 2013 ,uwitwa Michel Djotodia atangaza ko ariwe Perezida.

Misiri : Ku wa 03 Nyakanga 2013 , igisirikare cya Misiri ,kiyobowe na Maréchal Abdel Fattah al-Sissi cyahiritse Bwana Mohamed Morsi ,wari umaze igihe gito atowe n’abaturage ,ubwo ishyaka rye ryitwaga Ishyaka ry’Abavandimwe rya Kisilamu [ The Muslim Brotherhood ], ryatsindaga amatora,ariko rikanengwa ko ryashatse guhindura byinshi mu Misiri ,huti huti ,cyane cyane ngo byashoraga guteza imyiryane mu baturage ba Misiri.

Cote d’Ivoire: Yo yavuzweho bihagije muri iyi nkuru ,ariko nayo usanga ibarizwa mu bihugu byahindutsemo ibintu ,mu buryo budasanzwe ,muri iyo myaka 2 yavuzwe haruguru.

Burkina Faso: aha hose habaye impinduka zidasanzwe, zahinduye byinshi mu butegetsi bwo mu bihugu byabo, kandi izo mpinduka zasize bamwe bubikiwe imbehe ,ahandi na nubu ruracyageretse ,cyane ko uko ubutegetsi buvuyeho, bitavuze ko ibihe bikurikiraho bihira ababikora bose.

Gukuraho ubutegetsi muri Afrika cyari ikintu kimwe, mu gihe gushyiraho ubundi buhamye hamwe byagendaga  biba ihurizo, ndetse ibihugu bimwe na bimwe bikabiviramo guhungabana ,hafi kugwa mu manga yo kutagira ubutegetsi bumeze neza [ Chaotic States ] .nko muri za Centrafrique n’ahandi usanga hajya kurutwa n’uko hari hameze ,abahinduye ubutegetsi batarabufata.

Ibyo gufata ubutegetsi ku ngufu biragenda bicendera  muri Afurika, hamwe nko muri Gambia mu mwaka ushize wa 2016 , uwari Perezida Yahya Jammeh yashatse kugundira ubutegetsi kandi yari yatsinzwe amatora, ibihugu byibumbiye mu Muryango w’Ubukungu wa Afurika y’Iburengerazuba ukamuhakanira ndetse ukohereza ingabo zo kumuhambiriza shishi itabona ndetse akomoka agahunga




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